Tension leveling is the process of pulling the strip beyond its yield point to permanently change the shape of the strip and make it flat. The material is run through an entry and exit set of bridle rolls, with the corrective leveler located between them.
If you have an edge wave, the concept is to stretch the shorter fibers in the center of the strip so that they will match up in length with the longer fibers from the edge wave. Conversely, if you have a full center, you are attempting to stretch the edges of the strip to match up in length with the center buckle. If the strip is consistent in length across the width of the strip, you have created flat steel. The tension leveling process is a combination of elongating the strip and bending the fibers over a series of work rolls. Tension leveling will eliminate edge wave & center buckle as well as correct excessive crossbow and coil set. This process usually involves a dedicated line.
Putting the material under tension as it goes through the flattener or leveler moves the neutral fiber toward the inside of the bend. The strip tension adds to the bending tension on the outside of the bend. It subtracts from the bending compression on the inside of the bend. There is less compression on the inside and more tension on the outside. Therefore, less elongation occurs on the inside of the bend, while more occurs on the outside of the bend. The neutral fiber moves toward the inside radius of the bend.
With tension leveling lines installed, whether the coils go on to slitting, cut-to-length or processing (stamping, coating, etc.), shape is no longer a problem.
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